A. định hướng cần nắm

I. KHÁI NIỆM

1. Câu tường thuật là câu thuật lại khẩu ca trực tiếp.

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+ khẩu ca trực tiếp (direct speech): là diễn đạt lại đúng đúng đắn điều ai này đã nói (còn gọi là trích dẫn). Bề ngoài của câu khẩu ca trực tiếp sẽ tiến hành đặt trong lốt noặc kép.

Ví dụ: She said ” He is so handsome”. Theo đó, câu "He is so handsome" là khẩu ca trực tiếp tuyệt câu trực tiếp

+ khẩu ca gián tiếp – câu trần thuật (indirect speech): Là trần thuật lại lời vẫn nói của một fan khác bên dưới dạng con gián tiếp, không sử dụng dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Lylys said, ”I want to lớn go home” -> Lylys said she wanted khổng lồ go home là câu loại gián tiếp (indirect speech)

Khi họ sử dụng câu gián tiếp, chúng ta thường nói đến quá khứ, vày vậy dạng tự của động từ vào câu cũng được chia sinh sống quá khứ.

2. Các loại câu tường thuật phổ cập trong tiếng Anh

2.1. Câu tường thuật sinh hoạt dạng câu kể

S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V

+ says/say lớn + O -> tells/tell + O

+ said khổng lồ + O ->told+O

Eg: He said lớn me”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2.2. Câu tường thuật nghỉ ngơi dạng câu hỏi

a. Yes/No questions:

S+asked/wanted to know/wondered+if/wether+S+V

Ex: ”Are you angry?”he asked -> He asked if/whether I was angry.

b. Wh-questions:

S + asked(+O)/wanted khổng lồ know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.

* says/say khổng lồ + O -> asks/ask + O

* said to + O -> asked + O.

Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾP thanh lịch CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

*

Khi chuyển từ một tiếng nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếp khá đối kháng giản, chúng ta chỉ buộc phải ghép nội dung tường thuật làm việc phía sau câu nói và hạ rượu cồn từ của chính nó xuống một cấp cho quá khứ, đại từ được đổi khác cho phù hợp. Tuy nhiên, cần lưu ý một số vấn đề sau:

+ Nếu động từ trần thuật (reporting verb) phân tách ở những thì hiện tại bọn họ giữ nguyên thì (tense) của đụng từ chính, đại từ hướng đẫn và các trạng từ bỏ chỉ khu vực chốn cũng như trạng từ chỉ thời hạn trong câu thẳng khi gửi sang con gián tiếp.Ví dụ:- He says: “I’m going khổng lồ Ha Noi next week.”

⇒ He says he is going khổng lồ Ha Noi next week.

+ Nếu đụng từ tường thuật (reporting verb) của câu sinh hoạt thì vượt khứ thì đề xuất lùi động từ chính về quá khứ một bậc khi chuyển từ tiếng nói trực tiếp (direct speech) sang lời nói gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo phép tắc sau:

* đổi khác thì của động từ và đụng từ khuyết thiếu theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu con gián tiếp

Present simplePast simple
Present continuousPast continuous
Present perfectPast perfect
Past simplePast perfect
Present perfect continuousPast perfect continuous
Past continuousPast perfect continuous
willwould
cancould
must/ have tohad to
maymight

* chuyển đổi đại từ và những từ hạn định theo bảng sau:

 

Câu trực tiếp

Câu loại gián tiếp

Chủ ngữIhe/ she
YouI/ We/ They
WeWe/ They
Tân ngữmehim/ her
youme/ us/ them
usus/ them
Đại trường đoản cú sở hữumyhis/ her
yourmy/ our/ their
ourour/ their
Đại trường đoản cú sở hữuminehis/ hers
yoursmine/ ours/ theirs
oursours/ theirs
Đại trường đoản cú chỉ địnhthisthe/ that
thesethe/ those

* biến đổi trạng ngữ chỉ thời hạn và nơi chốn theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

herethere
nowthen/ at that moment
today/ tonightthat day/ that night
tomorrowthe next day
next weekthe following week
yesterdaythe previous daythe day before
last weekthe week before
agobefore

NOTE: Khi chuyển động từ các bạn chỉ yêu cầu nhớ lấy rượu cồn từ gần nhà ngữ nhất sụt giảm 1 cột tức là:

+ Động từ ở cột 1 thì giảm sút cột 2, ( lưu giữ thêm ed khi không phải là đông trường đoản cú bất quy tắc)

+ Động tự cột 2 thì giảm thành cột 3

+ Động từ bỏ cột 3 thêm had phía trước

Tuy nhiên, cần chăm chú một số trường hợp tiếp sau đây không giảm thì cồn từ:

+ nói về chân lý, sự thật.

+ Thì vượt khứ hoàn thành.

+ vào câu tất cả năm xác định.

Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF nhiều loại 2, 3 .

B. Bài xích tập


I. Ngừng các câu trong bài câu tường thuật.

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

She asked............................................. ......................

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.

Martin asked us................................................ ...................

3. He asked, "Do I have to do it?"

He asked............................................. ......................

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

The mother asked her daughter.......................................... .........................

5. "Which dress bởi you lượt thích best?" she asked her boyfriend.

She asked her boyfriend......................................... ..........................

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.

She wanted khổng lồ know.............................................. .....................

7. "Are you going to the cinema?" he asked me.

He wanted lớn know.............................................. .....................

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"

The teacher wanted to know.............................................. .....................

9. "How bởi vì you know that?" she asked me.

She asked me................................................ ...................

10. "Has Caron talked khổng lồ Kevin?" my friend asked me.

My friend asked me................................................ ...................

Đáp án

1. She asked where her umbrella was.

2. Martin asked us how we were.

3. He asked if he had to vì chưng it.

4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.

5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.

6. She wanted to know what they were doing.

7. He wanted khổng lồ know if I was going lớn the cinema.

8. The teacher wanted to lớn know who spoke English.

9. She asked me how I knew that.

10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked lớn Kevin.

II. Viết lại những câu sau sử dụng cách nói con gián tiếp.

1. “Open the door,” he said to them.

- He told them...................................................................

2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.

- He asked her where.........................................................

3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.

- He asked... ......................................................................

4. “Bring it back if it doesn’t fit”, I said to her.

- I told... ............................................................................

5. “Don’t try to open it now,” she said to lớn us.

- She told... ........................................................................

6. “Is it going to be a fine day today?” I asked her.

- I asked her... ....................................................................

7. “He’s not at home”, she said.

- She said that... .................................................................

8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.

- The girl wanted khổng lồ know... ..............................................

9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.

- Tom told Ann... ...............................................................

10. “Please let me borrow your car,” he said khổng lồ her.

- He asked... ........................................................................

11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

- Thomas asked Jean.....

12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.

- I told Mary.... ...................................................................

13. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you,” she said.


She said that...

14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.

- She said that... ...................................................................

15. “What are you going to vì next summer?” she asked.

- She asked us.... ...................................................................

16. “I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he told Jack.

- He told Jack that.... .............................................................

17. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

- Tom asked Jean.... ..............................................................

18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.

- He said that.... ...................................................................

19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said khổng lồ us.

- He told us.... ...................................................................

20. “How long are you going lớn stay?” I asked him.

- I asked him how long....

21. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

- She wanted khổng lồ know.... ..................................................

22. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said to us.

- She asked us.... ..............................................................

23. “Will you come to lớn my party?” she said to lớn me.

- She invited me.... ............................................................

24. “Don’t vị it again,” she said khổng lồ them.

She told them..................................................................

25. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes khổng lồ you?” she asked.

- She asked.......................................................................

26. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.

- She told..........................................................................

27. “What bởi you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

- Mary asked.......................................................................

28. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

- Peter asked if .......................................................................

29. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

- The office manager wondered............................................................

30. “You had better not lend him any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.

- John advised Elizabeth........................................................................

31. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.

- John accused.......................................................................................

32. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.

- Mary accused......................................................................................

33. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse lớn Mrs. Bingley.

- The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley...............................................................

34. “You should take more exercise, Mr. Robert,” the doctor said.

- The doctor advised................................................................................

35. “Will I find a job?”, Tim said to lớn himself.

- Tim wondered.......................................................................................

36. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul to Susan.

- Paul apologized.....................................................................................

37. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.

- Martha asked Peter when.....................................................................

38. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anna khổng lồ her mother.

- Anna asked............................................................................................

39.. “Don’t leave the house until I get back, William”, his mother said.

- William’s mother told..........................................................................

40. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs. Rogers to lớn her son.

- Mrs. Rogers told....... .............................................................................

41. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.

- George said............................................................................................

42. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.

- Martin apologized..................................................................................

43. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.

- The landlady asked................................................................................

44. “ John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.

- Mary asked............................................................................................

45. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.

- The notice said that..............................................................................

46. “Where is the best place to lớn buy souvenirs?”

- I asked..................................................................................................

47. “Don’t forget to lớn bring your passport with you tomorrow”

- She reminded me ................................................................................

48. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher to lớn the boys.

- The teacher told the boys………………………………………..........

49. “How many jobs have you had since 2000?” the interviewer asked Mr. Simpson.

- The interviewer asked ...........................................................................

50. “Why didn’t you report the incident khổng lồ the police?” the officer asked the frightened witness.

- The officer wanted lớn know...................................................................

Đáp án

1. He told them to xuất hiện the door.

2. He asked her where she was going.

3. He asked me which way they had gone.

4. I told her khổng lồ bring it back if it didn’t fit.

5. She told us not lớn try to open it then.

6. I asked her whether/ if it was going khổng lồ be a fine day that day.

7. She said that he was not at home.

8. The girl wanted khổng lồ know whether/ if the bus station was far away.

9. Tom told Ann not to lớn stay out late.

10. He asked her lớn let him borrow her car.

11. Thomas asked Jean whether/if she had seen his gloves.

12. I told Mary not lớn leave the window open.

13. She said that she would have a cup of tea with me.

14. She said that she would pay him if she could.

15. She asked us what we were going to bởi vì the following summer.

16. He told Jack that he would phone him the following day.

17. Tom asked Jean whether/if he could sit beside her.

18. He said that he wanted a camera for his birthday.

19. He told us not to keep the door locked.

20. I asked him how long he was going khổng lồ stay.

21. She wanted to know whether I was going by train.

22. She asked us not khổng lồ use too much hot water.

23. She invited me lớn come to her party.

24. She told them not to bởi vì it again.

25. She asked whether/ if Mr. Brown sent the potatoes lớn me.

26. She told the boys not khổng lồ get their shoes dirty.

27. Mary asked what Peter wanted for lunch that day.

28. Peter asked Janet whether/ if he could borrow her typewriter.

29. The office manager wondered why he hadn’t got a computer before.

30. John advised Elizabeth not khổng lồ lend him any more money.

31. John accused Amanda of stealing his best cassette.

32. Mary accused John of damaging her bicycle.

33. The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley where her little boy had been born.

34. The doctor advised Mr. Robert khổng lồ take more exercise.

35. Tim wondered whether/ if he would find a job.

36. Paul apologized khổng lồ Susan for giving her the wrong number.

37. Martha asked Peter when the first day of his holiday was.

38. Anna asked her mother whether/ if she could have a new bicycle.

39. William’s mother told him not to lớn leave the house until she got back.

40. Mrs. Rogers told her son not to bite his nails.

41. George said khổng lồ Mary that he had seen the film three times.

42. Martin apologized to Angela for having damaged her car.

43. The landlady asked us whether/if we had had enough for lunch.

44. Mary asked John not khổng lồ tell anyone her new address.

45. The notice said that breakfast would not be served after 9.30.

46. I asked where the best place khổng lồ buy souvenirs was.

47. She reminded me khổng lồ bring my passport with me the following day.

48. The teacher told the boys not lớn write on the wall.

49. The interviewer asked Mr. Simpson how many jobs he had had since 2000.

50. The officer wanted lớn know why the frightened witness hadn’t reported the incident to lớn the police.

III. Hoàn thành các câu trong bài xích câu tường thuật. để ý sự biến hóa của đại từ bỏ và các thì.

1. "What"s the time?" he asked.

→ He wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

2. "When will we meet again?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

3. "Are you crazy?" she asked him.

→ She asked him .................................................. .

4. "Where did they live?" he asked.

→ He wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

5. "Will you be at the party?" he asked her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

7. "Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.

→ The teacher wanted lớn know .................................................. .

8. "Why don"t you help me?" she asked him.

→ She wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

9. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.

→ He asked me .................................................. .

10. "Have you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.

→ The mother asked the twins .................................................. .

Đáp án

1. He wanted to lớn know what the time was.

2. She asked me when we would meet again.

3. She asked him if he was crazy.

4. He wanted to know where they had lived.

5. He asked her if she would be at the party.

6. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.

7. The teacher wanted khổng lồ know who knew the answer.

8. She wanted khổng lồ know why he didn"t help her.

9. He asked me if I had seen that car.

10. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

IV. Bài bác tập câu trần thuật requets (positive)

1. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.

→ The teacher told Joe .................................................. .

2. "Be patient," she said to lớn him.

→ She told him .................................................. .

3. "Go lớn your room," her father said khổng lồ her.

→ Her father told her .................................................. .

4. "Hurry up," she said to us.

→ She told us .................................................. .

5. "Give me the key," he told her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Play it again, Sam," she said.

→ She asked Sam .................................................. .

7. "Sit down, Caron" he said.

→ He asked Caron .................................................. .

8. "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.

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→ The receptionist asked the guest .................................................. .